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Of these, ∼30 compounds have been associated with adverse health outcomes.
Although the exact mechanisms by which nicotine produces adverse fetal effects are unknown, it is likely that hypoxia, undernourishment of the fetus, and direct vasoconstrictor effects on the placental and umbilical vessels all play a role.
First causing a release of glucose from the liver and epinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal medulla, it causes stimulation.
Users report feelings of relaxation, sharpness, calmness, and alertness.
Nicotine's addictive nature includes psychoactive effects, drug-reinforced behavior, compulsive use, relapse after abstinence, physical dependence and tolerance.
Recreational nicotine products include chewing tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, snuff, pipe tobacco, and snus.
N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN), classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen, has been shown to form in vitro from nornicotine in human saliva, indicating nornicotine is a carcinogen precursor.
The IARC has not evaluated pure nicotine or assigned it to an official carcinogenic classification.
People can be exposed to nicotine in the workplace by breathing it in, skin absorption, swallowing it, or eye contact.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for nicotine exposure in the workplace as 0.5 mg/m It is unlikely that a person would overdose on nicotine through smoking alone.